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« Reply #15 on: December 27, 2014, 07:56:11 pm »

BBC Nine O'Clock News, top story is on the fall of communism in Romania, including clearing the vast network of tunnels under the city from armed communist loyalists.



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« Reply #16 on: December 31, 2014, 08:34:52 am »



Medical supplies are unloaded from a 37th TAS C-130E #68-10943 on December 31, 1991 at the Bucharest airport. Provided by the 7th Medical Command, the supplies are part of relief effort for citizens of the revolt-torn country.
USAF photo by SSGT Perry Heimer
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« Reply #17 on: January 20, 2015, 12:13:53 pm »

Transcript of speech President Bush aired mid-day today, 20 Feburary 1992:



Just two hours ago, U.S. and allied air forces have begun proactively patrolling the skies over the embattled nation of Czechoslovakia in order to halt the attacks by Soviet and East German air forces on the Czech people. These activities continue as I speak. Ground forces are not engaged.

This conflict started December 8th of last year, when Communist hardliners began a coup against the legitimate government of Czechoslovakia. This was followed by an invasion by the Soviet Army, against this former member of the Warsaw Pact, in an attempt to crush the very people it has claimed for 40 years to protect.

The Czechoslovak Army, and its people fought this brutality, and won for a time. In recent days, Soviet Military might has been brought to bear out of proportion to all civilized reason. A huge air force has decimated the Czechoslovak military, and along with it tens of thousands of its people in their homes. Chemical attacks have re-introduced the horrors of World War One, methods that have been condemned by the entire world. Just a year ago Saddam Hussein thought to use his superior size to destroy his neighbor, now we see this evil again rear its head once again. The Czechoslovak people are resolute in their fight for Freedom.

Our military action, taken in accord with United Nations Resolution 672, and with the consent of the United States Congress, follows a month of constant and virtually endless diplomatic activity on the part of the United Nations, the United States, and many, many other countries. European leaders sought peace in Moscow, only to conclude that Gorbachev's Regime was unwilling to leave Czechoslovakia. Others traveled to Moscow in a variety of efforts to restore peace and justice. Our Secretary of State, James Baker, held an historic meeting in Geneva, only to be totally rebuffed.

This past weekend, in a last-ditch effort, the Secretary-General of the United Nations personally visited the Soviet capital with peace in his heart, his second such mission. And he came back from Moscow with no progress at all in getting Soviet troops to withdraw from Czechoslovakia.

Now the free people of the world having exhausted all reasonable efforts to reach a peaceful resolution -- have no choice but to protect the people of Czechoslovakia by force. As I report to you, U.S. and allied nations will now secure the skies over Czechoslovakia in order to bring this illegal and immoral actions to a halt one way or another.

Our objectives are clear: Soviet forces will leave Czechoslovakia. The legitimate government of Czechoslovakia will be restored to its rightful place, and Czechoslovakia will once again be free to determine it's own fate. The Soviet Union will eventually comply with all relevant United Nations resolutions, and then, when peace is restored, it is our hope we will revert to our lives as a peaceful and cooperative members of the family of nations, thus enhancing the security and stability of Europe.

Some may ask: Why act now? Why not wait? The answer is clear: The world could wait no longer. Sanctions would have had no effect, and offer no signs of accomplishing their objective. Sanctions were tried in the past, then as now we and our allies concluded that sanctions are not effectively used on such a power as the Soviet Union.

While the world waited, Soviet Forces systematically raped, pillaged, and plundered a tiny nation. A country that poses no threat to their own. They subjected the people of Czechoslovakia to unspeakable atrocities -- and among those maimed and murdered, innocent children.

While the world waited, Gorbachev brought to use his chemical weapons arsenal. An infinitely more dangerous weapon of mass destruction -- a nuclear weapon -- lurks in the background. And while the world waited, while the world talked peace and withdrawal, Gorbachev dug in and moved massive forces into Czechoslovakia.

While the world waited, while Gorbachev stalled, more damage was being done to the fragile economies of the Third World; emerging democracies of Eastern Europe; to the entire world, including to our own economy.

The United States, together with the United Nations, exhausted every means at our disposal to bring this crisis to a peaceful end. However, the Soviets clearly felt that by stalling and threatening and defying the United Nations, they could weaken the forces arrayed against them.

While the world waited, Soviet envoys met every overture of peace with open contempt. While the world prayed for peace, the Politburo conducted war.

I had hoped that when the United States Congress, in historic debate last week, took its resolute action, Gorbachev would realize he could not prevail and would begin to move out of Czechoslovakia in accord with the United Nation resolutions. He did not do that. Instead, he remained intransigent, instead he increased his Force, certain that time was on his side.

Well, he failed. Tonight, the free nations of the world have forces in the European arena standing shoulder to shoulder against the threat of Soviet Armies. These countries had hoped the use of force could be avoided. Regrettably, we now believe that only force will make them leave.

Prior to ordering our forces into battle, I instructed our military commanders to take every necessary step to prevail as quickly as possible, and with the greatest degree of protection possible for American and allied service men and women. I've told this to the American people before. In our fight against Iraq we showed the world our might, and we did so with only a few painful losses. And so, I repeat this here tonight. Our troops will have the best possible support in the entire world, and they will not be asked to fight with one hand tied behind their back. I'm hopeful that this fighting will not go on for long and that casualties will be held to an absolute minimum.

This is an historic moment. We have in this past year made great progress in ending the long era of conflict and cold war. We have before us the opportunity to forge for ourselves and for future generations a new world order -- a world where the rule of law, not the law of the jungle, governs the conduct of nations. When we are successful -- and we will be -- we have a real chance at this new world order, an order in which a credible United Nations can use its peacekeeping role to fulfill the promise and vision of the U.N.'s founders.

We have no argument with the people of the Soviet Union, or its allies. Indeed, for the innocents caught in this conflict, I pray for their safety. Our goal is not the conquest of Czechoslovakia, or its inclusion into NATO. It is the liberation of Czechoslovakia. It is my hope that somehow the Soviet People people can, even now, convince their Leaders that they must lay down their arms, leave this unjust war behind them, and let the Soviet Union rejoin the family of peace-loving nations.

Thomas Paine wrote many years ago: "These are the times that try men's souls. Those well-known words are so very true today. But even as planes of the United State Air Force move into conflict with the Air Forces of the Warsaw pact, I prefer to think of peace, not war. I am convinced not only that we will prevail but that out of the horror of combat will come the recognition that no nation can stand against a world united, no nation will be permitted to brutally assault its neighbor.

No President can easily commit our sons and daughters to war. They are the nation's finest. Ours is an all-volunteer force, magnificently trained, highly motivated, recently tested in Iraq, and proven heroes. The troops know why they're there. And listen to what they say, for they've said it better than any President or Prime Minister ever could.

Listen to Hollywood Huddleston, Marine lance corporal. He says, "Let's free these people, so we can go home and be free again. And he's right. The terrible crimes and tortures committed by Communist Government henchmen against the innocent people of Czechoslovakia are an affront to mankind and a challenge to the freedom of all.

Listen to one of our great officers out there, Marine Lieutenant General Walter Boomer. He said: "There are things worth fighting for. A world in which brutality and lawlessness are allowed to go unchecked isn't the kind of world we're going to want to live in.

Listen to Master Sergeant J.P. Kendall of the 82nd Airborne: "We're here for more than just which dictator controls Czechoslovakia. What we're doing is going to chart the future of the world for the next 100 years. It's better to deal with this now before it spreads across Europe, or the world.

And finally, we should all sit up and listen to Jackie Jones, an Army lieutenant, when she says, "If we let them get away with this, who knows what's going to be next?

I have called upon Hollywood, and Walter, and J.P., and Jackie and all their courageous comrades-in-arms to do what must be done. Today, America and the world are deeply grateful to them and to their families. And let me say to everyone listening or watching: When the troops we've sent in finish their work, I am determined to bring them home as soon as possible.

Today and in the coming weeks as our forces fight, they and their families are in our prayers. May God bless each and every one of them, and the Allied forces at our side in Western Europe, and may He continue to bless our nation, the United States of America.
« Last Edit: January 20, 2015, 12:32:15 pm by aswayze » Logged
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« Reply #18 on: January 21, 2015, 07:15:12 am »

As President Bush spoke last night, US troops were already en route to Czech airfields to help bring in humanitarian and military aid. This is a report from early this morning of a machine gun section leader of one of those units.


We were called to report at 0300 to the company. Another exercise, we thought however with all the events happening in Europe we held our words until we started to hear more. We had conducted several emergency musters within the last year but when our supply company pulled up with live ball we knew something was different. The entire Battalion had formed up and began to draw ammunition. we usually drew ammo at the Assembly Area (AA) from whatever airfield we were taking off from. We quickly were issued language cards (which were in Czech and in Russian) and given several small bills of currency. We took unmarked busses which was also out of the norm. The transport company said they didn't have enough for the whole Battalion at once.

We arrived some 2 hours later at our AA and began to draw chutes, reserves and weapons cases. Once staged we gathered around the briefing area which had a large terrain model of the airfield and and the surrounding area. Brno-Tuřany was the objective. The commanders intent for this required us to guarantee freedom of movement for air landings to enable follow on forces ability to mass.

The airfield itself was almost 3 km long which the DZSO said would give us almost 25 seconds of green light. Plenty of time for us to get out of the birds. After the Company brief our platoon stayed around to get our OPORD which was delivered to the whole of the Platoon to save time. My section (weapons squad) would be tasked with with the initial support by fire position located in the "in-field" of the taxiway. Our principal direction of fire (PDF) was the control tower, focusing on the bottom level and the shifting to the top walkways. Once we took the control tower building we would consolidate and push to our blocking position just a few km from the airfield area.

With the OPORD issued we moved to our rigging area, rigged up and loaded onto our bird. B Company would take the center of the airfield, with A Company taking the far end and C Company taking the leading end. D Company--which is our heavy weapons company--would land after during the air landing phase and off ramp their trucks. The battalion scout platoon would clear the runway for D Company while the rest of the Battalion pushes out to block.

Once the planes were loaded we took off for a 45 minute flight. Dropped to 800 ft and the bird slowed down to jump speed. Stand up, hook up, check equipment and standby. These commands were rushed as the approach wasn't communicated to the jumpmasters until very late. It was civil twilight and all that was left for light was the trail end of dusk. The sky was filled with chutes and bodies. No weapons fire yet. I gained canopy control and began to assess my fall and speed. Fully loaded with the M60 combat load I fell fast as another jumper ran across my chute. 800 ft came quick as I landed without lowering my equipment. I jumped up, put my weapon in action and rolled over to find myself within 200 meters of the control tower.

To my surprise. still no weapons fire. I quickly oriented my machine gun to the bottom floor of the control tower building. About a minute later my assistant gunner showed up and brought the tripod and spare barrel and the rest of the ammunition. We started to see the parts of our platoon move towards our first objective. That when we opened fire on the entrance to cover the first rifle sections movement. No return fire as we shut off fire to let the rifle section into the buildings entrance. Several small arms bursts were heard across the outfield of the airstrip. The rifle section gave the chem light signal from the top of the control tower and we knew we had taken the first objective. No enemy was on the airfield, but several other platoons in adjacent companies ran into small reconnaissance elements that had set up listening posts.

We moved to our secondary objective, which was also our assembly point and waited for our designated minimum force to move out with. The minimum force (MIN-FOR) was established as at least one rifle squad, one machine gun and a key leader (a squad leader or above.) My team was the second group to arrive at our ORP. Night time signal was flashing IR light from our night vision. Once we gave the near recognition signal we entered the ORP to find that we had MIN-FOR and prepared to move out. However we had just got a new Platoon Leader and he was hesitant to move out without our entire platoon. Argument followed with our Platoon leader insisting we get full accountability to move out. The senior NCO’s continued to talk him into moving out but he didn't budge. We sat in the ORP for an hour and a half while he tried to contact Company.

After another half an hour he finally let the majority of the Platoon leave to our blocking position. My section, with both the machine guns moved out to our secondary SBF positions after reacting our release points and we performed overwatch for the rifle squads moving through the area.

Suddenly small arms fire rang out. AK series weapons fired a few shots, and then silence. We got a radio call from 2nd Squad, "Contact, wait out." Next we heard one of our rifle squads open up with everything they had. We quickly oriented off their position which we could now make out at about 150 meters from us across a woodline. I decided to have our machine guns open up to the right of their muzzle blasts at about 100 m from them and designated it an area target. We laid sustained fire on that area for about one minute, until the rifle squad had sent up a pop flare for shift fire. Another flare went up and we lifted fire while the rifle squad in contact swept through the area.

Next we moved to our blocking position which was a hardball road about a kilometer from our last position. We set up the machine guns to watch the length of both approaches to the road while the rifle squads filled in the rest of the sectors facing away from the airfield. We had learned that 2nd Squad had killed a four man team of Soviet troops, although they had no insignia or unit markings on their uniforms. Luckily we had no casualties in our Platoon or Company but soon we heard that C Company took 4 wounded and one KIA on their end of the airfield.

Several groups of two to four man patrols were found and two separate sets of SA-7 shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles were discovered. We're not sure why they didn't fire on our aircraft. Good thing because little prep fire was conducted prior to our drop. Our escort group of fighters were the only air assets that could be gathered in time apparently.

The air situation is pretty hazy. In some areas we have air superiority. In other areas we have nothing. Several hours later two missiles--probably more SA-7s–-were reportedly fired upon aircraft landing, as well as Company level mortars. Flares threw off the missiles so none of our planes were hit, but a Quick Reaction Forces was called to deal with the mortar crews.

This meant that Soviet--or possibly communist Czech--stay behind troops were in the area, and were waiting for support craft to land instead of trying to engage the aircraft in the air. Aerial ground camo was flown in after and our new SOPs were to always conceal for aerial threats. Company shoulder fired ADA was also flown in afterwards and issued down to the platoons.

Lessons learned from our seizure:
  • Develop signals that are not IR. The Soviet troops we encountered were issued active night vision that when used, picked up our IR signaling. C Company had their KIA from getting hit in their ORP while signaling with IR.
  • Take the initiative. Our hesitation could have meant that several groups of Soviet recon got away and may still be in the area. We missed opportunities to kill the stay behind troops that pulsed the area several hours later. The Soviet troops we encountered were patient and as we were taught will wait until the situation is in their favor to take action.
  • Seized areas more than likely have either been booby trapped or had established target reference points for when the soviets pull out. Actions on objectives should be quick, and then quicker to get out of the area before fire can be called on us. Again, pure luck they didn't mortar us while we were standing around.
  • Coordination with every action is key. GOTWA’s, PACE plans, and signaling are what make or break our ability to fight WARPAC. Older methods of signaling and coordination are preferred to mitigate their ability to use night vision.
  • The new GPS units failed. The Platoon would have rallied sooner but several infantry relied on GPS to navigate them to the ORP and as a result were either horribly late, and didn't show up until the shooting started. We would have had a hell of a time if more than a few Soviet scouts decided to have hardened the area.
« Last Edit: January 21, 2015, 07:49:28 am by Shoobe01 » Logged
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« Reply #19 on: January 23, 2015, 05:09:06 pm »

E. Germany to Pull Out of Czech Fighting

Czech President Havel Vaclav gives a sign for victory to a spontaneous gathering of supporters after the announcement on Friday.

BONN, West Germany (AP) – Erich Honecker, the leader of East Germany, announced that after less than a full month of fighting in Czechoslovakia his nation has reached an agreement with Czech President Havel Vaclav for an immediate cease fire. As part of the agreement East German forces will withdraw their forces back into East Germany within 72 hours.

US diplomats and soldiers were also present for the negotiation, Secretary of State James Baker said in a press conference this afternoon detailing the terms of the agreement. When pressed for details on American involvement in the Czech conflict, the Secretary declined to comment on when US troops would withdraw, but stated "there is continued unrest from foreign armies and communist hardline militias."

On East German state television Honecker gave a prepared statement regarding the decision.

"On the day when the German Democratic Republic was founded, a completely new chapter was opened in the history of our people. This chapter was initiated by the victory of the Soviet Union and other states of the anti-Hitler coalition over German fascism. The achievements recorded since that great victory have been for the benefit of the People, and have made it possible to meet our internationalist obligations. We who have jointed in anti-motivated solidarity have always acted inline with the solemn pledge adopted at the hour of its foundation: Never again, fascism! Never again must unrest, imperialism and war spread from German soil. Our fraternal cooperation with other Socialist peoples has been based on these precepts.

We entered Czechoslovakia in support of Socialist ideals only to find that we are condemned on the world stage as nothing more than a continuation of the motivated fascism we have always stood against. There has been many a confirmation of our firm conviction that the internal development of Socialism necessitates an objective growth of the possibilities and requirements of international cooperation between the fraternal states. The results attained by each individual state will be all the better, the more comprehensive use is made of the chances offered by internationalist cooperation. However, our support for the Soviet ideal of Socialism cannot and does not extend past our own concerns for socialist aspirations of the citizens of the German Democratic Republic.

We will begin building a new German Socialism based on our universal, fraternal bond. The situation in the world today is complex and dangerous, though not intolerable or unalterable. Everything depends on the united and resolute actions of those who sincerely want peace."

Czech President Havel Václav commented on the announcement, “It is clear to us all that the will of the Czechoslovakian people is for freedom. We will continue to defend our country, our people and our human rights for the rest of time. Our revolution, forged in steel shall not be broken."

Western politicians and military experts expressed surprise at this unprecedented breaking of ranks within the Soviet system saying it clearly indicates serious fractures in the East, and points to an unprecedented weakness from Moscow following military failures in Czechoslovakia.

Soviet and East German forces supported a communist coup attempt last month in the Czech capital of Prague. Until today, Soviet and East German politicians and state press claimed welcoming throngs and victory over the Western-aligned government forces. Western and local press has uniformly reported the Communist forces were badly mauled in clashes with local militias and Czechoslovakian military forces, including the capture of several thousand Russian troops.

Soviet Russian forces have not apparently attempted to reach any type of cease fire agreement. However, fighting has all but ceased along the Soviet battle front, and a large contingent of the their forces are reportedly encircled on the outskirts of the city of Mlada Boleslav, some 60 km (35 miles) north-east of Prague.
« Last Edit: January 23, 2015, 05:11:47 pm by Shoobe01 » Logged
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« Reply #20 on: January 26, 2015, 08:35:25 am »

Czech Freedom Fighters Declare Victory

US Army MPs and West German Police observe East German troops loading equipment near the Czech town of Litomerice on Sunday.

PRAGUE, Czechoslovakia (AP) - In what is being called the Steel Revolution, Czechoslovakia's the newly formed democratic republic appears to have decisively fought off a communist coup and invasion. In a little more than a week the tiny eastern European nation successfully brought the poorly planned attempt to an end. Celebrations in the capital and most towns erupted last night and have continued throughout the day with no sign of ending.

The BBC aired footage of East German troops moving under West German police escort toward the East German border, apparently following up on a ceasefire agreement announced on Friday. Sporadic attacks by local militias and partisans on both sides of the conflict have complicated the withdrawal. Czech military forces have moved into the areas along the agreed upon movement routes and are generally preserving order. An Army spokesman in Berlin announced that US troops have have been involved in some fighting, and two soldiers were wounded lightly while fighting partisans outside Prague on Friday evening.

A spokesman for the East German military, speaking alongside Czech Foreign Ministry representatives earlier today stated they had no concerns about meeting the 72-hour withdrawal deadline.

There is no official word on the remnants of the Soviet Russian forces that were reported surrounded yesterday afternoon some 50 km north of Prague. Czechoslovakian government sources have privately commented that there is no more threat from that quarter, but failed to elaborate on these statements.

A DoD spokesman separately stated there is no indication the French Army helicopter carrying US troops which crashed 10 miles north of the Czech capital of Prague yesterday was lost due to enemy action. A "known mechanical issue" was announced without elaboration. While officials would not comment on the record, a high ranking member of the administration indicated that US troops are in continuous battle with "Soviet special forces."

NATO forces along the border with Czechoslovakia have had their readiness level reduced and French forces were seen loading equipment onto trucks on Sunday. NATO General Secretary Manfred Wörner stated. "It seems cooler heads have prevailed." He continued in response to Austrian press questions that "while we maintain our vigilance, peace seems to have broken out."
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« Reply #21 on: January 27, 2015, 08:16:33 am »

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« Reply #22 on: January 29, 2015, 01:41:47 pm »



U.S. Claims Evidence of Chemical Weapons Used in Czechoslovakia

BONN, West Germany (AP) - The U.S. government has presented evidence that lethal chemical weapons have been used by Soviet forces in their ongoing incursion into Czechoslovakia.

US Secretary of State James Baker, in a televised speech in West Berlin on Wednesday said there have been "continuing reports" that such weapons have been used by the Soviets and their allies in Hungary, Poland and Romania.

"We now have physical evidence from sites in Czechoslovakia which has been analyzed and found to contain abnormally high level of three potent mycotoxins - poisonous substances not indigenous to the region which are highly toxic to man and animals," he continued.

He said use of these toxins, which are chemicals produced through biological means, is prohibited by the 1925 Geneva Protocol and that their manufacture is forbidden by the 1975 Biological Weapons Convention.

Although Baker did not say specifically that the Soviet Union was responsible for deploying these weapons, the Soviet news agency Tass accused him of "unfounded and false assertions to divert the attention of the real threat which is brought by U.S. militarist policy as well as the preparation started by Washington, for a chemical war."

Other U.S. official who didn't want to be named said one of the chemicals is trichothecene toxin, known as T-2, occurs naturally in grain molds common in the Soviet Union.

Time magazine recently reported that government forces and government-backed guerrillas in Czechoslovakia have been attacked with chemical weapons. The report quoted several Czech officers who fought Soviet troops near Prague in December. They said Soviet air and ground units deployed a "toxic agent" that killed a number of soldiers, blinded others and turned leaves on trees "totally dark."

The chemical bombs and grenades emit a yellow and green vapor, the reports continued. While government troops resorted to gas masks, guerrillas and police forces without protective equipment learned to combat the effects of the weapons by placing wet cloth over their faces.
« Last Edit: January 29, 2015, 01:46:16 pm by Shoobe01 » Logged
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« Reply #23 on: February 03, 2015, 07:47:51 am »

U.S. Army Fighting Russian Holdouts in Czech City


A US Army helicopter flies over a Soviet tank it just destroyed outside Olomouc. US and NATO forces assisted Czech troops in repelling communist revolutionaries and foreign troops in the city starting today (Susan Meiselas/Magnum).

Prague (AP) -- General Colin Powell announced this morning at a Pentagon briefing that an additional 8,000 US troops had parachuted or been airlifted into the city of Olomouc, to assist Czech ground forces in clearing the region of communist troops and providing humanitarian aid to central Czechoslovakia. About one hundred Soviet troops supported a Czech army unit that revolted against the elected government here on New Year's Day, and have occupied much of the city and surrounding region since then.

Two hundred French troops assaulted the city airport immediately before the first US parachute landings before dawn. Small contingents from Italy and West Germany have also been committed to assist with local police operations. International Red Cross containers and personnel were shown waiting to be airlifted from Aviano airbase in Italy as soon as combat operations completed.

Czech Army spokesman Andrej Cirtek explained that US forces "used their specialized weapons and mobility to destroy Soviet tanks and fighting positions." He continued to describe the operation by clarifying that "Czech troops conducted the bulk of the fighting, and are in control of all positions at this time." Eleven Czech soldiers were reported killed in the fighting. Three Americans were killed when the helicopter they were riding on was shot down and crashed into a building near the airfield. At least five other US troops on the helicopter were evacuated to Germany with injuries.

While the Czech Army declined to comment on communist casualties, a US Army spokesman in Berlin said Soviet forces were "wiped out." Around 200 communist troops and partisans were captured, and seen being loaded onto busses late in the day for transport to detention camps in the eastern part of the country.
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« Reply #24 on: February 11, 2015, 08:56:52 am »

BUDAPEST -- As part of the continued unrest across the Soviet Union, Hungarian forces claim to have conducted a preemptive strike on Soviet forces massing at their border with western Ukraine. Hungarian troops claim large scale success and the seizure of hundreds of prisoners; educated experts are dubious of Hungarian claims as most of the uniformed "soldiers" captured seem to be either KGB border troops or Militia troops.
Invasion level concentrations of Soviet troops are not known to be in Ukraine. Most western watchers agree that Russian troops are unlikely to be staging for an invasion of Hungary until Moscow stabilizes their frontiers most directly threatened by the NATO build up in Germany.

Hungarian officials continue to concentrate on legitimizing their new government and local press reports are emphasizing the Hungarian military success against a Russian army formation. This mirrors a wave of anti-Russian feeling sweeping the USSR. The local media has framed Hungarian success as part of their new national identity and pride.

Ukrainian officials have released a statement condemning an attack on four border posts by the Hungarian military. Sergi Pavlov regional commander of the affected border posts has demanded the return of the fifteen border guards seized in the series of attacks.
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« Reply #25 on: February 12, 2015, 11:33:42 am »


Russian soldiers advance past the burned remains of a US tank destroyed in eastern Czechoslovakia early Thursday morning.

Soviet Paratroopers Cross Czech Border, Attack US Troops

Prague (AP) -- A US spokesman stated that at least 100 US and French troops were killed, and another "several hundred" were unaccounted for when over 1,000 Soviet paratroopers dropped onto an airfield adjacent to their base in eastern Czechoslovakia early this morning. After some three hours of fighting, by 10 am local time the allied forces had withdrawn from the town and were regrouping a few miles to the east.

US and other NATO troops and police forces assisted Czech government forces in retaking the town of Kosice from Soviet-backed militants last week. Allied forces, including some 5,000 US troops had set up a base camp near the airport, and were assisting with operations now focused on support and humanitarian relief while Czech troops performed counter insurgency operations in the surrounding areas.

A White House spokesman said the pre-dawn raid by Soviet troops may signal the start of a "second and more violent offensive" against the former satellite state. As of mid-day local time, Czech forces continued to regroup and there was constant fighting in and around the city of Kosice.

Soviet fighter-bombers were seen attacking targets within the city all morning, and several apartment towers had collapsed due to bombing. A mid-morning air battle put an end to these attacks and several aircraft were seen falling into hills on the outskirts of town.

Andrea Fuleova, an administrator at Nemocnica Saca Hospital, said that there were at least 3,000 injured civilians waiting outside the hospital for treatment, and could not estimate how many were in the hospital, which lost power for several hours before backup generators could be repaired. All the vehicles for the local ambulance service had been destroyed by the fighting, and injured civilians were being transported by cars and trucks through the rubble-strewn streets. The Czech army has taken over a sports stadium on the north end of the city as an evacuation and emergency treatment site. Air defense missiles were seen concealed near the area.

Soviet forces were seen using light tanks and had destroyed several American and Czech vehicles including at least one M1 Abrams tank--recently successful in the war with Iraq. Additional reports by the Czech government indicated that Soviet forces had also crossed the border with heavily armed ground forces across from the Ukrainian city of Uzhhorod, 60 miles to the East.

US forces in Prague have assembled a relief convoy, which was expected to arrive near dusk. US, German and French helicopters have been seen all morning ferrying supplies and evacuating wounded personnel from the battlefield.

French Minister of Defense Pierre Joxe confirmed that a rapid reaction force had been deployed and was currently engaging Soviet forces in support of the allied mission, but declined to comment further on their strength, location or mission.

The Czech ambassador to the UN has called for an emergency session of the UN in another attempt to seek a diplomatic resolution to the crisis. However, there is no expectation of any action as the expected Soviet veto will prevent any resolution from passing. The Czech government is also said to be appealing to NATO for permission to formalize the relationship with the allied forces fighting on their behalf.

Sources in the NATO leadership indicated that the Czech government is seeking an agreement with the allied governments that would allow them to strike Soviet forces such as bombers at their bases within the Ukraine region before they can attack.

President Bush is expected to address the nation this evening regarding the crisis.
« Last Edit: February 12, 2015, 11:37:01 am by Shoobe01 » Logged
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« Reply #26 on: February 16, 2015, 10:53:59 am »

The drift to war with Soviet Russia

USGS College - 16 February 1992

The Soviet Russian's lack of immediate response to internal revolutions has exposed a lack of true reserve forces and previously unconfirmed suspicions regarding the lack of actual numbers of functional heavy combat vehicles. The slower than expect build-up of significant fighting troops as well as a distinct lack of operational armor, has added to the revolutions of rising hope throughout Eastern Europe. However, careful observers will note that wide scale purges have elevated a much more belligerent cadre of powerful leaders within the Army and the Kremlin.

The slow Soviet Russian response should not be viewed as a lack of will at this point. Given that they pose a significant offensive threat NATO would be wise to escalate all readiness levels. At the tactical level the Soviets have already reportedly used Chemical Weapons (CW) in theater and since the Soviets have proved previously that they are
incredibly defensive about what they believe is sovereign territory it would not be outside the realm of possibility that area nuclear weapons could be employed against specific formations of rebels.

With the introduction of a more hawkish leadership, this level of escalation is not only possible but probable. The inherent top down manipulation of the system is central to progressivism. In the1920s Walter Lippman wrote, "Mass man functions as a 'bewildered herd' who must be governed by 'a specialized class whose interests reach beyond the locality.' The elite class of intellectuals and experts are to be a machinery of knowledge to circumvent the primary defect of democracy, the impossible ideal of the "omnicompetent citizen."  With the removal of many of the recalcitrant party members a much shorter chain of command leads to Soviet Russia’s nuclear, biological and chemical arsenals.

The Soviet Russians do not see these internal revolutions as organic to the States where they are occurring and consider them all to be the product of Western interference; it is likely that this has created a sense of intense provocation within the structures of power in the Soviet Union. More disturbingly what we don't know is whether Russian officers follow any international code of conduct. Do they understand what is banned and not banned? Does the Communist Party control their own military or have large
portions of their officer cadre slipped the leash?  There are serious indications that after the recent purges that the political leadership is weakened and only somewhat tolerated. Such trust as was present between Western and Soviet diplomats has almost completely broken down, as evinced by the almost total lack of progress by numerous diplomatic missions in these last hectics six months. Eastern Europe has clearly become the most explosive fault line in current geopolitics, without the usual relief valve of routine diplomacy.

Washington is scrupulously neutral over legal claims of sovereignty -- an issue that soon gets bogged down in the minutiae of the Potsdam Declaration -- but it stands by West Germany on the core principle of the post-War order; that international borders may not be changed by force or coercion; though how that affects our position regarding internal democratic rebellions within the Soviet Union is less clear. The required escalation of NATO readiness and international condemnation brings to mind the Agadir crisis. The risk of such a strategy is that it feeds a sense of paranoia and becomes self-fulfilling.

Yet there is a hint of ambiguity in US body language. There is a vocal lobby in Washington warning that nationalists in the Soviet republics are drawing the US into a disastrous clash with Soviet Russia against its national interest. If Russia’s purpose with these forays is to drive a wedge between Washington and its allies and to test the willingness of a war-weary America to stand behind not only allies but rebelling Soviet republics it is hard to know what conclusion Moscow may have drawn from the events of the last six months.

America is sending the same sorts of signals as England at the onset of the First World War. Nuanced diplomacy -- reflecting a divided Parliament -- allowed the Germans and the French to draw different conclusions in those crucial weeks of July and August 1914.

What frightens analysts most is talk from certain quarters in Moscow that the US is a busted flush, bled dry by the financial crisis, crippled by military over-stretch during Desert Storm, and that now is the moment to test the paper tiger.

This is a fatal misjudgment of course. To adapt an old saying, "America is never as strong as she looks: America is never as weak as she looks", and much the same could be said about Soviet Russia. That said brinkmanship in Europe has never been move dangerous and fraught with the potential for over-reaction.
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« Reply #27 on: February 18, 2015, 07:59:35 pm »


US troops take cover from Soviet explosive and gas artillery in a bunker on the outskirts of Kosice in Eastern Czechoslovakia Wednesday morning.

Soviets Gas US Troops, Civilians in Major Offensive

Berlin (AP) - In an apparent attempt to break the stalemate with NATO forces in Czechoslovakia, Soviet troops today staged a major air and ground attack including the first combat use of chemical weapons in Europe since the First World War.

A US spokesman in Prague said that US force were prepared for this eventuality, and were able to deal with the attack. Soviet forces had been seen in recent days staging unconventional weapons including rockets inside Czechoslovakia, and NATO troops were all equipped with proper protective equipment. No fatalities from the chemical attack were confirmed among the French and US troops on the ground, and there was no word on troops killed in the fighting. Five West German police were killed by gas along with their Czech police escort when caught in the open, and almost 1,000 troops were evacuated with various injuries from the fighting to military hospitals in France and Germany.

A spokesman at a US Army hospital in Prague said there were at least 10,000 civilian casualties due to the use of chemical weapons over towns, roadways and rail lines.

A pre-dawn air attack on several NATO controlled airfields in Czechoslovakia caused significant damage and NATO fighters are operating from adjacent countries including France, Italy and Germany. Approximately 20 US aircraft were shot down in the air battle. NATO commanders claim to have downed a total of 6 Russian bombers, 14 attack aircraft, and 13 fighters. Russian defense officials could not be reached for comment on losses or casualties.

US forces have in recent days been deploying tanks and armored infantry carriers, and were generally able to repel more lightly-equipped Soviet attackers though several US positions were abandoned after being destroyed by Russian artillery and rockets.

Despite the presence of these armored vehicles, troops interviewed after the fighting indicated at least some US casualties may be due to faulty protective systems on the Bradley Fighting Vehicles. At least some Soviet troops advancing through the gas attack were also not protected by their vehicles. Reporters on the scene noted three undamaged Russian vehicles full of troops outside the town of Presov. All the soldiers had been apparently killed by chemical attack.

Helicopter-borne Soviet troops also attempted to circumvent US ground forces and cut off resupply lines. A series of towns were attacked along the crucial highway 50 route. By late afternoon, NATO forces had resorted to a series of air attacks on these positions, and had reportedly killed most of the Soviet troops. Some dogfights were seen over central Slovakia during these attacks, but no aircraft losses could be confirmed.

US armor and Blackhawk helicopters were seen moving into the sparsely-populated area and were reported to have secured several of the sites by dusk.

French helicopter troops, supported by fighter jets, counter-attacked deep into Soviet-held territory in Slovakia later in the day and reportedly destroyed several weapons depots, a headquarters, and six mobile rocket launchers before returning to their bases. In an extensive NATO briefing, US and French generals indicated that this and the destruction of the Soviet helicopter troops had prevented a second wave of Russians from attacking.

Romanian troops, also fighting off a Soviet invasion for the past two weeks, were subjected to a similar assault including the use of poison gas. Casualty figures were unavailable, but the Romanian lines were broken in several places. By nightfall, Soviet troops had brought Cluj-Napoca, the second most populous city in Romania, under indiscriminate artillery attack.

In Poland, rumors of a fully-fledged civil war appear to be true as Soviet air and artillery were reported attacking several Polish military installations in the south. A BBC reporter smuggled out tape of a mid-day gas attack on the city of Krakow. A spokesman for the chemical warfare NGO the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons commented on the footage and other reports indicated that casualties could exceed 100,000.

In the wake of this series of attacks, several NATO nations have upped their commitments and increased their alert levels. In the UK, Prime Minister John Major addressed the nation this evening to announce the immediate commitment of combat aircraft to the war in Czechoslovakia, and an increase in troop levels in Germany over the coming days.
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« Reply #28 on: February 19, 2015, 10:17:01 am »


An apartment block in Kosice burns after a Soviet air attack. Firefighting services and water mains have been destroyed by the bombardment.


Parked cars burn outside a city market in Nitra, Czechoslovakia. Soviet forces have been bombing and shelling cities across western Czechoslovakia for a second day after wide scale combat yesterday.


US armored forces have begun cutting roads and bridging streams to engage Soviet paratroopers in the sparsely populated east-central Czechoslovakia Thursday morning.


French helicopter infantry assault a Soviet held rocket artillery position, at an undisclosed location in Czechoslovakia Wednesday afternoon. An additional 2,000 French troops have been deployed to the region overnight by helicopter and parachute.


Romanian forces decontaminate vehicles and equipment after yesterday's chemical attack. Soviet forces have broken through defensive lines, and Romanian resistance has been slow to regroup due to the contamination and large number of civilian and military casualties.


Health workers and emergency services in southern Poland are just beginning to handle what may be over 10,000 killed from yesterday's gas attacks on several cities, but progress has been impeded by continued attacks, and a lack of decontamination equipment.
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« Reply #29 on: February 22, 2015, 09:20:37 pm »



My fellow citizens, earlier today I ordered U.S. Tomahawk Cruise Missiles to strike Soviet Military sites in Czechoslovakia. No President takes such action lightly. Recent events on the battlefield in Czechoslovakia make such decisions necessary.

For nearly 4 months, the United States, and nations of Europe have worked together to resolve the crisis in Czechoslovakia. The goals of the United States have been to safeguard the lives of innocent civilians, included amount those Americans assisting in humanitarian aid delivery. Many attempts have been made to resolve this crisis through diplomacy and negotiations. When that failed limited military force has been applied with a careful eye on the possibility of a dangerous expansion to a broader European conflict.

The recent reckless and blatant use of chemical weapons in Czechoslovakia by Soviet Forces, has changed the conflict. Thousands of Military personnel and as yet untold thousands of civilians have been affected, many killed.

That is enough.

These dangerous attacks upon Americans in their camps, and civilians in their homes has created an imminent danger to the thousands of American service men and women in Czechoslovakia. As President, I have no higher obligation than to safeguard the lives of American citizens and to preserve, not waste, the lives of our Military.

I have ordered U.S. Air Force strikes from sites in West German, including forces deployed from the United States last night. They are engaged in action, attacking targets within the borders of Czechoslovakia. Our forces have conducted themselves courageously and selflessly. And as Commander in Chief, I salute every one of them and thank them on behalf of our country.

Striking along with our NATO partners, key military objectives have been achieved. The launch sites from which the Soviet Chemical weapons were fired have been destroyed. Most of the additional stores of chemical weapons have been eliminated, but the operation is not over yet. In conjunction with our strikes, the French have staged helicopter air assaults on Soviet communications centers which are needed to coordinate the use these chemical weapons.

I am committed to strengthening our relationship with the democratic nations in this engagement. I will continue to seek solutions to the problems of this region through dialog and multilateral diplomacy, but we will do so from a position of strength. No threat of weapons however terrible will defer us. I took this action only after reaching the conclusion that every other avenue was closed.

The United States is eager to work with the Czechoslovakian people in partnership and friendship to rebuild their economy. The Czechoslovakian people want democracy, peace, and the chance for a better life in dignity and freedom. The people of the United States seek only to support them in pursuit of these noble goals.
Thank you very much.
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