East Bloc Leadership and Leadership Operational Philosophy: How it applies to East Wind
Information compiled and edited by Misha Mikhailovich.
Soviet military education institutions comprise a vast network within the U.S.S.R., but they do not have to begin from scratch to develop military officers. The Russian educational system is highly authoritarian, structured, and militarized. By the time a young man applies to an officer commissioning school, he will already have completed ten years of general education with strong emphasis on basic science, technology, and mathematics. He will have participated in a whole series of military-patriotic programs, including:
- Tactical military games as a regular part of the ten-year school.
- He will probably have been a member of the Komsomol (Young Communists) and DOSAAF (All-Union Voluntary Society for Assistance to the Army, Air Force, and Navy).
Soviet Military Officer SchoolsSoviet military officer institutions are of three types:
First, middle schools train undergraduates, have a two-year curriculum, and are comparable to Western secondary technical schools.
Second, higher schools are also undergraduate institutions, but they generally have a four-year program, and many are extending to five years. They offer a higher education degree, similar to the U.S. bachelor of science.
Third, the academies or military universities conduct professional military education (PME) and are similar to U.S. intermediate and senior service schools. They offer graduate studies, some research opportunities, and the highest academic degrees ("candidate of sciences" and "doctor of sciences").
Finally, although it is nominally an "academy," the General Staff Academy is, in fact, on a higher level, similar to the National War College in prestige and promotion potential.
Listing of all Russian Military Academies.
- Voroshilov General Staff Academy
- Frunze Academy
- Malinovskiy Armored Troops Academy
- Kalinin Artillery Academy
- Dzerzhinskiy Rocket Forces Academy
- Gargarin Air Academy
- Zhukovskiy Military Air Engineering Academy
- Govorov Air Defense Engineering-
- Radio Technical Academy
- Zhukov Air Defense Command Academy
- Grechko Naval Academy.
- Kuybyshev Engineering Academy
- Budenniy Signals Academy
- Timoshenko Chemical Defense Academy
- Lenin Political-Military Academy
- Makarov Rear Services and Transportation Academy
- Kirov Medical Academy
- Military Academy of Air Defense of Ground Troops
- Military Research Institutes
Differences between Socialist and Capitalist Officer's Schools
First, Soviet military education is more extensive than that in the United States or Western Europe, and it has grown significantly since World War II.
Second, Soviet military education institutions are not only numerous but they also command an impressive portion of the total Russian investment in education. Despite some uncertainties in the numbers, military officer-training schools constitute more than fifteen percent of the undergraduate institutions and thirty percent of the postgraduate universities.
Third, Soviet military courses of instruction are two to three times longer than their U.S. counterparts. No U.S. professional military school is longer than one year, while Soviet schools appear to average two to three years and some run to four years.
Fourth, comparisons of the role of faculties provide some contrasts. Soviet faculty members appear to be much older and of much higher rank than their U.S. counterparts. Commandants of "academies" are, by Soviet law, rank equivalent to military district commanders. Also by law, academy heads of departments must be general officers. Between 250 and 350 generals and admirals are assigned as commandants and faculty members in military schools. There are very few civilians and almost no women on military faculties, and those so employed are utilized in specialist capacities like teaching foreign languages.
Fifth, military history is the thread that ties the educational curricula together. Each school seems to emphasize a slightly different period in Russian history, depending on the perceived role of the service or branch at that time. For the Russian navy, the closest historical analogue appears to be the late Czarist period; for the armored forces, it is clearly from the battle of Kursk in 1943 to the battle for Berlin. Military history reinforces the role of strategic and tactical doctrine, and teaching these three subjects is high among the primary objectives of the schools.
The overall broader purposes of Soviet military officer education appear to be:
- To give the officer a broad background in Russian national history and contemporary culture.
- To prepare him ideologically for long-term political and military competition with the West.
- To specialize him in military skills for duty in his school's branch.
- To prepare him to cope with increasingly complex science and technology and "the revolution in military affairs.
- To identify the most promising officers for promotion and duty in the General Staff.
- To further socialize the officer into the centralized, command directed military profession.
To accomplish these objectives, entrance and graduation examinations are required in the subjects of Marxism-Leninism, military art, strategy, and military doctrine. Successful completion of one of the academies is a mark of distinction and status, prominently displayed in the form of a badge worn on the officer's tunic.
The content of the training appears to foster control more than initiative, centralized authority more than independent action, and a narrow technical approach rather than systems integration. To the degree that this is a correct assessment, Soviet military education would appear to mirror Soviet civil education.
Soviet civil and military education is a unique product of Russian history and an authoritarian regime and is well-suited to a growing scientific technological power with a war-fighting doctrine.
The Science of War: Soviet Military Science
In the Soviet Union war is a science. As a science, its meaning, method, and conduct can be analyzed, taught, and learned
Military science - is the theory of military science. It is more dynamic, movable, than doctrine. Doctrine is based on the leading political principles of state and theoretical data of military science.
There is a close interdependence between military doctrine and military science. Science analyzes objective laws, doctrine leans on her conclusions and derivations.
The military doctrine of any state has two sides: Socio-Political and Military-Technological.
Both sides are closely interconnected, each effects the other. However the socio-political side dominates eventually. It determines the character of the military tasks of the Soviet State, the main direction/axis of the construction of the Soviet Armed Forces.
Differences consist also of the fact that the doctrine accepted by a state is a uniform system of views, free from the subjective views and appraisals.
This is the guide to action. However in science are inherent the struggle of opinions, difference in the points of view, equal scientific representations, hypotheses which do not acquire the character of official views on military questions.
Soviet military doctrine carries offensive character. However this has nothing in common with the aggressiveness of the military doctrine of the imperialistic countries.
The Soviet Union and the Socialist Bloc countries are not assembled to attack someone. But if they do attack, then they will do as much as possible to wage a ware in the most offensive manner to complete the enemy's destruction.
However, doctrine is not dogma, but guide to action. It has the force of law.
Military personnel are guided by it, but this does not eliminate organizational, creative work.
Doctrine seeks to provide solutions to the challenges faced by a country at war, by addressing beforehand such questions as:
- What is the nature of the enemy the state will face in a possible war?
- What is the nature of the war in which the state will fight; what goals and missions they might be required to meet?
- How are the preparations for war to be implemented?
- What methods must be used to wage the war?
In the case of the Soviet Union, doctrine incorporates the scientifically founded views of military science with the views of the Communist Party, which in turn reflect Marxist/Leninist teaching on the nature of war.
Military science is defined as "A system of knowledge concerning the nature and laws of war, the preparation of the armed forces and nation for war and the means of conducting the war.
Military Art provides "the theory and practice of preparing and conducting military operations on the land, at sea and in the air. As that part of Soviet Military theory from which strategy, operational art and tactics stem, some amplification on the role of military art is beneficial.
The theory of military art, as the most important element of Soviet Military Science,studies and elaborates on actual methods and forms of armed combat. It represents a complex mix of direct military discipline, which like al the remaining branches of military science, is constantly changing and being creatively enriched. The theory of military art consists of strategy, operational art, and tactics, each of which represents a whole field of scientific knowledge.
Fitting Military Science with Marxism/Leninism
Lenin's ideas about the defense of the socialist fatherland, developed by it the principles of Soviet Military science were leaders for the Communist Party in all development stages of Soviet state. Marxist-Leninist theory must lay the path to the practice, provide strictly scientific approach to the leadership of all regions of Soviet people's life, including in military science...
In its approach to the military theory and military science, the party is guided by the following basic requirements:
- Correctness to Marxism-Leninism in the solution of all questions of military science, the consistent defense of its principles, decisive struggle with any attempts at its revision/examination.
- Leninist alliance of the policy and science, carried out on the basis of creative Marxims-Leninism, including military affairs.
- Creative development of M/L situations on questions of military theory, their enrichment in accordance with those revolutionary transformations which occur in military science at present.
- Indissovlable bond of military science with the practice, their organic unity.
- Work like Lenin, support to the creative activity of military personnel in the development of military science.
Soviet cornerstones of military science.
- Preparedness - The ability to fulfill missions under any conditions for starting or the conduct of war.
- Initiative - Utilizing surprise, decisiveness, and aggressiveness to continuously strive to achieve and retain the initiative. Initiative, in this sense describes efforts to fulfill the plan in spite of difficulties. This is in contrast to the western usage of the term which implies problem-solving and improvisation in order to deal with changed circumstances.
- Capability - Full use of the various means and capabilities of battle to achieve victory.
- Cooperation - Coordinated application of and close cooperation between major units of the armed forces.
- Concentration - Decisive concentration of the essential force at the needed moment and in the most important direction to achieve the main mission.
- Depth - Destruction of the enemy throughout the entire depth of their deployment.
- Morale - Use of political and psychological factors to demoralize opponents and break their will to resist.
- Obedience - Strict and uninterrupted obedience. Orders are to be followed exactly and without question. Commanders are expected to directly supervise subordinates in a detailed manner in order to ensure compliance.
- Steadfastness - Subordinate commanders are to carry out the spirit and the letter of the plan.
- Security - Security complements surprise. All aspects of security, from deception and secrecy, to severe discipline of subordinates who through action or inaction allow information to fall into the hands of the enemy are to be vigorously carried out.
- Logistics - Restoration of reserves and restoration of combat capability is of paramount concern of the modern, fast paced battlefield.
How does all this apply to Airsoft and more specifically to East Wind?
If the Soviet leaders of East Wind were "real", they would be highly trained and well educated. They would have already undergone years of both communist indoctrination and military scientific/historical study. They would know their job in and out. They would likely be party members and thus adhere to Marxist/Leninist philosophy within their jobs and ranks. The same would be expected of every man, down to the last conscript. This idea of obedience isn't just taught in military school, it is taught from the ground up, all the way back into grade school days of the Officers and Enlisted. It would further be emphasized in the military schools the Officers and possibly enlisted would attend. Non-Commissioned Officers (NCO's) school is little more than an extra month or two (at best) of training of an enlisted man or conscript. However, the idea of obedience is likely emphasized once more as it is one of the pillars of Soviet Military Science.
As displayed by the Marxist/Leninist section of this information, there is some room for change of both doctrine and military science when it is displayed that it is beneficial to the field.
Soviet Military science is not unwavering, in fact it is noted that Science above Doctrine is more open to discussion/debate than the latter. That being said, orders are orders and troops are expected to carry them out to the spirit and letter of the plan that is devised by higher command.
Thus, if the commander says do it, more likely than not, it is with a VERY good reason and any reasons not to, have already been thought of by those far more educated and far more skilled than the lower level that may question it.
Soviet Military Science is derived from hundreds of years of military expertise and exercise. It does seek to incorporate new technologies into its operating philosophy, but it is not quick to incorporate dissention and question into its guidelines. Thus you do what you are told to do.